The tabular is the de-facto way of presenting tabular data in LaTeX.

Basic Example[edit | edit source]

% Please add the following required packages to your document preamble:
% \usepackage{multirow}
\begin{table}[]
\centering
\caption{My caption}
\label{my-label}
\begin{tabular}{|c|c|c|c|c|c|c|c|c|c|}
\hline
\multirow{3}{*}{Original material}              & \multirow{3}{*}{Adsorbent Designation}                   & \multicolumn{4}{c|}{Incineration condition}                                                                                                          & \multirow{3}{*}{Yield (\%)} & \multirow{3}{*}{Surface area (m2/g)} & \multirow{3}{*}{Place of study} & \multirow{3}{*}{Reference} \\ \cline{3-6}
                                                &                                                          & \multirow{2}{*}{Reactor/Furnace}         & \multirow{2}{*}{Atmosphere}     & \multirow{2}{*}{Temperature (°C)} & \multirow{2}{*}{Residence time (h)} &                             &                                      &                                 &                            \\
                                                &                                                          &                                          &                                 &                                   &                                     &                             &                                      &                                 &                            \\ \hline
Sugarcane bagasse                               & MISCBA                                                   & microwave furnace                        & nitrogen                        & 900                               & 3                                   & 23.4                        & 599                                  & Malaysia                        & This study                 \\ \hline
\multirow{2}{*}{Sugarcane bagasse}              & \multirow{2}{*}{undigested sugarcane bagasse bio char}   & \multirow{4}{*}{muffle furnace}          & \multirow{4}{*}{–}              & \multirow{4}{*}{550}              & \multirow{4}{*}{2}                  & \multirow{4}{*}{–}          & \multirow{2}{*}{14.1}                & \multirow{4}{*}{USA}            & \multirow{4}{*}{{[}58{]}}  \\
                                                 &                                                          &                                          &                                 &                                   &                                     &                             &                                      &                                 &                            \\ \cline{1-2} \cline{8-8}
\multirow{2}{*}{Sugarcane bagasse}              & \multirow{2}{*}{digested sugarcane bagasse bio char}     &                                          &                                 &                                   &                                     &                             & 17.7                                 &                                 &                            \\ \cline{8-8}
                                                &                                                          &                                          &                                 &                                   &                                     &                             &                                      &                                 &                            \\ \hline
Rice husk                                       & RP 600                                                   & \multirow{2}{*}{furnace}                 & \multirow{2}{*}{limited oxygen} & 600                               & \multirow{2}{*}{6}                  & 31.9                        & \multirow{2}{*}{–}                   & \multirow{2}{*}{Greece}         & \multirow{2}{*}{{[}59{]}}  \\ \cline{1-2} \cline{5-5} \cline{7-7}
Rice husk                                       & RP 300                                                   &                                          &                                 & 300                               &                                     & 32.8                        &                                      &                                 &                            \\ \hline
\multirow{5}{*}{Wheat residue}                  & WC - 300                                                 & \multirow{5}{*}{–}                       & \multirow{5}{*}{limited oxygen} & 300                               & \multirow{5}{*}{6}                  & \multirow{5}{*}{10-27}      & 116                                  & \multirow{5}{*}{USA}            & \multirow{5}{*}{{[}60{]}}  \\ \cline{2-2} \cline{5-5} \cline{8-8}
                                                & WC - 400                                                 &                                          &                                 & 400                               &                                     &                             & 189                                  &                                 &                            \\ \cline{2-2} \cline{5-5} \cline{8-8}
                                                & WC - 500                                                 &                                          &                                 & 500                               &                                     &                             & 309                                  &                                 &                            \\ \cline{2-2} \cline{5-5} \cline{8-8}
                                                & WC - 600                                                 &                                          &                                 & 600                               &                                     &                             & 438                                  &                                 &                            \\ \cline{2-2} \cline{5-5} \cline{8-8}
                                                & WC - 700                                                 &                                          &                                 & 700                               &                                     &                             & 363                                  &                                 &                            \\ \hline
\multirow{2}{*}{rapeseed plant stalk and straw} & \multirow{2}{*}{rapeseed plant stalk and straw bio char} & \multirow{2}{*}{tubular reactor}         & \multirow{2}{*}{nitrogen}       & \multirow{2}{*}{900}              & \multirow{2}{*}{–}                  & \multirow{2}{*}{27.9}       & \multirow{2}{*}{140.4}               & \multirow{2}{*}{Turkey}         & \multirow{2}{*}{{[}61{]}}  \\
                                                 &                                                          &                                          &                                 &                                   &                                     &                             &                                      &                                 &                            \\ \hline
bamboo                                          & bamboo char                                              & –                                        & limited oxygen                  & 1000                              & –                                   & –                           & 517.3                                & China                           & {[}62{]}                   \\ \hline
Orange peel                                     & MOP 700                                                  & –                                        & –                               & 700                               & 6                                   & –                           & 19.4                                 & China                           & {[}63{]}                   \\ \hline
\multirow{2}{*}{empty fruit brunch}             & \multirow{2}{*}{magnetic bio char}                       & \multirow{2}{*}{microwave muffle system} & \multirow{2}{*}{nitrogen}       & \multirow{2}{*}{–}                & \multirow{2}{*}{0.5}                & \multirow{2}{*}{–}          & \multirow{2}{*}{765}                 & \multirow{2}{*}{Malaysia}       & \multirow{2}{*}{{[}64{]}}  \\
                                                 &                                                          &                                          &                                 &                                   &                                     &                             &                                      &                                 &                            \\ \hline
\multirow{3}{*}{water treatment sludge}         & WS 400                                                   & \multirow{3}{*}{muffle furnace}          & \multirow{3}{*}{limited oxygen} & 400                               & \multirow{3}{*}{2}                  & \multirow{3}{*}{–}          & 126.4                                & \multirow{3}{*}{Japan}          & \multirow{3}{*}{{[}65{]}}  \\ \cline{2-2} \cline{5-5} \cline{8-8}
                                                & WS 600                                                   &                                          &                                 & 600                               &                                     &                             & 114.4                                &                                 &                            \\ \cline{2-2} \cline{5-5} \cline{8-8}
                                                & WS 700                                                   &                                          &                                 & 700                               &                                     &                             & 135.2                                &                                 &                            \\ \hline
dairy waste                                     & DAWC                                                     & muffle furnace                           & nitrogen                        & 600                               & 2                                   & –                           & 161.2                                & USA                             & {[}66{]}                   \\ \hline
\end{tabular}
\end{table}


Columns are separated by &, and \\ ends a row.

Summary of results on the scaled spiral samples. D0 is the diameter of the spiral, while w and s are the width of the patterned lines and their separation. f0 is the resonant frequency in the PEC limit. Add columns for Tc
dd dd dd dd dd dd 3 8 9 0 -5 1
2 1 2 4 4 1
2 1 2 3 5 1
3 1 1 1 1 1
5 11 1 1 1 1
76 1 1 1 1 1
1 11 1 1 1 1

Advantages and Limitations[edit | edit source]

LaTeX doesn't require any packages to use tabular by itself, so tabular is ubiquitous. The limitations of tabular are that it doesn't add sufficient whitespace around cells. Though it's not a limitation, many users add unnecessary vertical lines and double lines to their tables.

The booktabs package has a few commands that vastly improve the quality of tabular's tables, and the documentation for booktabs has some advice on typesetting tables properly.

Column Definition[edit | edit source]

A tabular environment takes one required parameter, the column definition.

\begin{tabular}{lrcp{0.5in}}
left aligned & right aligned & centered & set in a 0.5 inch parbox.
\end{tabular}

To repeat a series of columns, *{num}{form} may be used, e.g. *{3}{lr} is the same as lrlrlr.

Not recommended (and does not work as expected with booktabs) is the use of | and || to add vertical and double-vertical lines between columns.

To add some common text between two columns, use @{text} in the column definition.

Lines / Rules[edit | edit source]

As shown in the example in the beginning, the \hline command draws a horizontal line after the header row. To draw a line between subsequent rows, use \cline.

It is not necessary to draw a line between every row in a table.

Layout[edit | edit source]

A tabular environment is rendered inline as a single large character. An optional parameter controls the position of the float. By default, a tabular is aligned vertically centered with the text baseline.

\begin{tabular}[t]{lll}

The above example would align the top of the tabular with the text baseline, a b would align the bottom.

Floating tabular[edit | edit source]

To make the table float, simply include it in a table environment or a figure environment.

\begin{table}
\caption{Caption needs to be before the label.}
\centering
\begin{tabular}{lll}
...
\end{tabular}
\label{tbl:tablelabel}
\end{table}

See example at \autoref{tbl:tablelabel}.

The \centering command may be preferable to the center environment in a float, as the center environment will add a paragraph and create extra whitespace in the float.

A tabular environment may be nested within a minipage to allow side-by-side tables within a table or figure environment, or to place an image next to a table.

\begin{figure}
  \begin{minipage}{2in}
    ... image ...
  \end{minipage}
  \qquad
  \begin{minipage}{2in}
    \begin{tabular}{lll}
      ... table ...
    \end{tabular}
  \end{minipage}
\end{figure}

Other packages[edit | edit source]

  • The ctable package allows captioned floating tables, with table footnotes properly laid out. It is also somewhat less wordy.
  • For an alternative approach to side by side tables, try the subfigure package. This also removes the need for specifying subtable width.
  • For handling tables that span pages, longtable.
  • The tabularx package
Qasim

External links[edit | edit source]

Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.